European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences

Issue 105
June, 2020

Intragroup Conflict and its Impact on Job Satisfaction in Jordanian Orphans Fund Development Foundation
Aktham Majed Alawajen and Shaker Jaralla Alkshali

This study aimed to test the impact of intragroup conflict on job satisfaction in Jordanian Orphans Fund Development Foundation. The study adopted a three dimensional scale to measure intragroup conflict (task conflict, relationship conflict and process conflict), while job satisfaction was measured through five dimensions (job nature, promotion, salary, supervisor relationship and colleague relationship). To achieve study aims, a descriptive-analytical method was used. The study was conducted on a sample of (121) employees working in this institution. This study found that there is a medium-level average for intragroup conflict dimensions. As for the level of job satisfaction dimensions, it came different; it is high for the nature of work, supervisor relationship and colleague relationship, while this level was average for promotion and salary. Also, the results showed a significant impact of intragroup conflict on job satisfaction. It was also evident that there a significant impact of intragroup conflict on job satisfaction dimensions (job nature, promotion, supervisor relationship and colleague relationship) except salary.
Keywords: Intragroup Conflict, Job Satisfaction, Jordanian Orphans Fund Development Foundation.

Macroeconomic Imbalances and their Effects on Stock Market Performance. Empirical Study on Egypt
Ashraf Helmy

This paper aims at determining the short-run and long-run causality running from macroeconomic imbalances to the performance of the stock market by applying Johansen Cointegration Test along with unrestricted VAR and Vector Error Correction Models on a selected number of macroeconomic financial and structural imbalances and selected indicators of the performance of stocks in Egyptian pounds and US dollars.
The paper concluded that the structure of economic sectors differs from the structure and characteristics of the stock market, the causality effects running from structural imbalances to stock market performance are more powerful relative to the effects of macroeconomic imbalances that are related to financial issues, and, except for the public debt imbalance, the effects of different macroeconomic imbalances on the performance of stocks in Egyptian pounds and US dollars are the same.
Keywords: Macroeconomic, structural imbalances, financial imbalances, stock market, Egypt.
JEL Classification: C50, E06, E02, E06, G10.

The Impact of Effective Time Management in Improving Private Universities Employees Performance
Hanada Almoumani

This study aimed to identify impact of effective time management on private universities employees ‘performance in Jordan. To achieve this goal, a questionnaire was designed according to study objectives and hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample consisted of 150 respondents from, private universities in Jordan selected randomly. The study concluded that there is an impact of effective time management (time planning, time organizing time orientation, employees empowerment, and time control), on private universities employee performance in Jordan.. The study recommended that private universities have to deepen the concept of effective time and its importance to employees, by motivating them to manage time, and have to plan training programs to develop employees skills how to manage their time effectively and to invent ways that can improve time management such as, introducing time management seminars, establishing strong management control tool effective rewards system and reduction of the bureaucratic system.
Keywords: Effective Time management, private universities, employee performance.

On the Safety of Treatments, Clinical Risk Management and Patient Well-being in the Pandemic Crisis: Problems and Recommendations due to COVID-19. A Dynamic Analysis of Fatality Risk in Italy
Ubaldo Comite

The National Health Service and its resources represent a complex system in which operate many heterogenic and dynamic factors, such as the plurality of the health services, the various management models, the specialized skills, the different professional roles (both technical-healthcare related and economic-administrative ones), the heterogeneity of processes, the specificity of the singular health needs and the results to be reached. In this context, the realization of safe and reliable treatments is inspired to the principle of pursuing the safeguard of life, of physical and psychical health of the sick person and the relief of suffering, conjugating the affordability of the management.
Recently, a novel coronavirus pneumonia (2019–nCoV) outbreak occurred in Wuhan, China, rapidly spreading first to the whole country, and then globally, also in Italy, causing widespread concern.
Italy was the second country in the world to face a wide epidemic of COVID-19 after China. The ratio of the number of fatalities to the number of cases (case fatality ratio, CFR) recorded in Italy was surprisingly high and increased in the month of March. The older mean age of population, the changes in testing policy, and the methodological computation of CFR were reported as possible explanations for the incremental trend of CFR, a parameter theoretically expected to be constant. In this brief report, the official data provided by the Italian Ministry of Health were analyzed using fitting models and the linear fit method approach. This last methodology allowed us to reach two findings. The trend of the number of deaths followed a 1–3-day delay of positive cases. This delay was not compatible with a biological course of COVID-19 but was compatible with a health management explanation. The second finding is that the Italian number of deaths did not increase linearly with the number of positive cases, but their relationship could be modeled by a second-order polynomial function. The high number of positive cases might have a direct and an indirect effect on the number of deaths, the latter being related to the overwhelmed bed capacity of intensive care units.
From the perspectives of early warning and identification of risk, risk monitoring, and analysis, as well as risk management and handling, this paper proposes corresponding solutions and recommendations, which include institutional cooperation, and to inform national and international policy-makers.
This paper provides a possible systematic response, even following a business approach, to problems concerning the issues of safety of the treatments and of the management of the risk linked to the delivery of the health services that still, to date, and in countries with highly evolved healthcare systems, such as Italy, do not always find an adequate solution.
Keywords: Health authorities, management, clinical risk, welfare, patient, safety, COVID-19, Wuhan, Italy

Female Board Members in Family Firms Does Critical Mass Drive Debt Level?
Simone Terzani, Teresa Turzo and Vanessa Latini

This study empirically investigates if a presence of a consistent female representation in the boardroom (i.e., a critical mass) affects leverage in family firms. Employing a sample of 268 Italian manufacturing firms for the period 2016-2018, the regression analysis show that the presence of - at least - three women in the boardroom significantly decreases firm's leverage. Results are robust to both, different measures of leverage and presence of women on board. These findings confirm the risk aversion of women and support the idea that a significant presence of women in the board is a useful instrument in risk monitoring. Our results are useful for policy makers – interested in the adoption of rules on gender quotas - in identifying the minimum number of women in the board needed to produce a statistically significant impact on performance and shed new light on the relationship between corporate governance characteristics and capital structure in concentrated-ownership companies.
Keywords: Board composition, Family firms, Board gender diversity, Critical mass, Leverage, Italy
JEL Classifications: G30, G32, M10, M14

From Healthcare Services to Healthcare Profiling: The Success of Public Health Measures In Europe during the COVID-19 Emergency
Ubaldo Comite

In line with what has happened in other sectors of the Public Administration, where the change process has, as an objective, the search for efficiency and efficacy, in Europe, the awareness that an efficient, effective and equal healthcare service is a major success factor for the socio-economic development of each is growing. The healthcare system is at the centre of great attention, having to demonstrate the adequate use of constantly decreasing available resources against a growing healthcare demand. This entails an incentive oriented toward the ability to improve services. Such need has been consolidating in the overall corporatization process, leading to a growing orientation toward performance and to the use of programming tools. In this context must be considered the diseases characterized by the length of the healthcare assistance plan and high complexities in terms of treatments and complications. Such diseases are relevant in epidemiological terms and also in terms of resources employed and improvement potential from the point of view of intervention policies, of public healthcare offer and of efficiency. The above may refer to the healthcare emergency still in place following the spread of the COVID-19 virus, employing an enormous amount of resources from both a human and a financial point of view. SARS-CoV-2, a serious threat to sustainable development prospects, is spreading within countries at varying speeds, among other things depending on their population density, behavioural responses, cultural factors, personal hygiene practices and habits. This has led to significant variation in countries’ policy responses aimed at stemming the proliferation of the virus. Using crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis, we conducted a comparative study at the European level to study the performance of different combinations of COVID-19 containment measures along with the response speeds. A set of configurations for two different scenarios (above- and below-median death rates) helps to illustrate how specific containment measures in each examined European country are related to the number of deaths. The main observation arising from the analysis is that the speed of response along with the decision to suspend international flights might determine the epidemic outbreak’s impact on fatality. The results also imply that several different combinations of containment measures are associated with death rates across Europe. The outcome of this analysis can assist in identifying which set of containment measures in the event of an epidemic outbreak is beneficial/detrimental.
This work considers combining theoretical considerations and empirical evidence related to the treatment of COVID-19, within what it is the success of public health measures in Europe during the COVID-19 emergency.
Keywords: healthcare, COVID-19, pandemic, service, efficiency, management, assistance, emergency, containment measures.

Motivation of Public Servants in Europe: A Proposal for a “Mixed Motives” Approach
Francesca Amendola, Marinella Boccia and Roberta Troisi

The paper analyses the attitude of public servants, to understand if it is based on an others- or self-oriented behavior. The conceptualization of the Public Service Motivation in the 1990s provided researchers with a new construct to understand the peculiar motivational leverages related to public sector employees. However, the concept has been analysed as based on altruistic elements rather than on self-serving ones. Using the European Social Survey for 2016, 2014 and 2012, it is empirically confirmed that the behavior of public servants within a European context is based on altruistic elements.
Keywords: Public Service Motivation; Organizational behaviour; Empirical Analysis
JEL Classifications: H83, M1, H19, C38

The Roles of Corporate Governance on Entrepreneurship and its Effects on Nigeria’s Economic Development
Olaifa, Olubunmi Ikeolape

Corporate governance is a key element for improvement of investors’ confidence, increase of competitiveness amongst entrepreneurs and improvement of economic development. The general objective of this study is to examine and determine the roles of corporate governance on entrepreneurship and its effects on Nigeria economic development. Other aims of the research work were to examine the relationships that exist between corporate governance and entrepreneurship output and to evaluate the contribution of entrepreneurship on Nigeria economic development.
The study made use of secondary data which were obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin covering the period of (2008-2017). Both descriptive and inferential tools were employed in this study. Descriptive tools include means, standard deviation, maximum and minimum value. For the inferential statistics, the study employed multiple regression model and Pearson pairwise correlation to analyze the secondary data.
The empirical results of this study revealed that the contributions of corporate governance on entrepreneurship have a positive effect on Nigeria economic development because entrepreneurship takes a greater percentage of the entire Nigeria economy. In relation to the objective of the study, the study also concludes that there is significant relationship that exists between corporate governance on entrepreneurship output and Nigeria GDP given a P-value of 0.0005, R-Squared of 0.9712, adjusted R2 of 0.9481 and F-value of 42.14. Also, the analysis revealed that the combined effect of corporate governance on entrepreneurship output on Nigeria GDP indicator is significant given a P-Value of 0.0017 and F-Value of 51.10, R2 of 0.8031 and adjusted R2 of 0.6456.
In the light of the above findings, the study therefore recommends that Nigeria government should strengthen her corporate governance tools in order to stabilize costs of doing entrepreneur business and lending cost. Ensuring stability of these tools would go a long way in promoting the performance of entrepreneurship and therefore improve the development of the Nigerian economy.
Keywords: Public Service Motivation; Organizational behaviour; Empirical Analysis
JEL Classifications: H83, M1, H19, C38